Punctuation is there to let the reader know how a sentance should be read and understood.
Sentences are the building blocks used to construct written accounts; they are complete statements. Punctuation shows how the sentence should be read and makes the meaning clear.
Every sentence should include at least a capital letter at the start, along with a full stop, exclamation mark or question mark at the end. This basic system indicates that the sentence is complete.
Here are the basic signs of punctuation:
- Comma (,);
- Full stop (.);
- Exclamation mark (!);
- Question mark (?);
- Semi-colon (;);
- Colon (:);
- Apostrophe (’);
- Quotation marks (“ ”);
- Hyphen (-);
- Brackets (( ) or [ ]); and
- Slash (/).
The comma is useful in a sentence when the writer wishes to:
- Pause before proceeding;
- Add a phrase that does not contain any new subject;
- Separate items in a list; and
- Use more than one adjective (a describing word, like beautiful).
For example, in the following sentence, the phrase or clause between the commas gives us more information behind the actions of the boy, the subject of the sentence:
The boy, who knew that his mother was about to arrive, ran quickly towards the opening door.
Note that if the phrase or clause were to be removed, the sentence would still make sense, although there would be a loss of information. Alternatively, two sentences could be used:
The boy ran quickly towards the opening door. He knew that his mother was about to arrive.
Commas are also used to separate items in a list.
The shopping trolley was loaded high with bottles of beer, fruit, vegetables, toilet rolls, cereals and cartons of milk.
Note that in a list, the final two items are linked by the word ‘and’ rather than by a comma.
Commas are used to separate adjectives.
The boy was happy, eager and full of anticipation at the start of his summer holiday.
As commas represent a pause, it is good practice to read your writing out loud and listen to where you make natural pauses as you read it. More often than not, you will indicate where a comma should be placed by a natural pause, though the ‘rules’ of where a comma needs to be placed should also be followed.
However, it has been suggested that some bees prefer tree pollen.
Full Stop (.)
A full stop should always be used to end a sentence, unless an exclamation or question mark closes the sentence. The full stop indicates that a point has been made and that you are about to move on to further explanations or a related point.
A series of three full stops (an ellipsis) can be used to indicate where a section of a quotation has been omitted when it is not relevant to the text, or where the person speaking is delaying. This can be typed on an Apple computer with Alt+colon. Here’s an example of an elipsis:
“The boy was happy… at the start of his summer holiday.”
A single full stop may also be used to indicate the abbreviation of commonly used words as in the following examples:
- Telephone Number = Tel. No.
- September = Sept.
- Pages = pp.
Exclamation Mark (!)
An exclamation mark indicates strong feeling within a sentence, such as fear, anger or love. It is also used to accentuate feeling within the written spoken word.
“Help! I love you!”
In this way, it can also be used to indicate a sharp instruction
- “Stop! Police!”
or to indicate humour
- “Ha! Ha! Ha!”
The exclamation mark at the end of a sentence means that you do not need a full stop.
Exclamation marks are a poor way of emphasising what you think are important points in your written assignments; the importance of the point will emphasise itself without a sequence of !!! in the text. An exclamation mark should only be used when absolutely essential (to indicate shouting, for example) or when taken from a direct quote.
Exclamation marks should be used sparingly in formal and semi-formal writing.
Question Mark (?)
The question mark simply indicates that a sentence is asking a question. It always comes at the end of a sentence:
Are we at the end?
Note that the question mark also serves as a full stop.
The semi-colon is perhaps the most difficult sign of punctuation to use accurately. If in doubt, avoid using it and convert the added material into a new sentence.
As a general rule, the semi-colon is used in the following ways:
When joining two connected sentences.
We set out at dawn; the weather looked promising.
Assertive behaviour concerns being able to express feelings, wants and desires appropriately; passive behaviour means complying with the wishes of others.
The semi-colon can also be used to assemble detailed lists.
The conference was attended by delegates from Paris, France; Paris, Texas; London, UK; Stockholm, Sweden; Colombo, Sri Lanka; and Mumbai, India.
The colon within a sentence makes a very pointed pause between two phrases. There are two main uses of the colon.
It is most commonly used when listing.
She placed the following items into the trolley: beer, fruit, vegetables, toilet rolls, cereals and cartons of milk.
Or it can be used within a heading or descriptive title.
Human Resource Management: Guidelines for Telephone Advisers
The apostrophe, sometimes called an inverted comma, has two main uses.
The apostrophe indicates possession or ownership.
The girl’s hat was green, (girl is in the singular).
This shows the reader that the hat belongs to the girl.
The girls’ hats were green, (girls in this instance are plural, ie, more than one girl, more than one hat).
This indicates that the hats belong to the girls.
Another use of the apostrophe is to indicate where a letter is omitted:
We’re going to do this course. (We are going to do this course.)
Isn’t this a fine example of punctuation? (Is not this a fine example of punctuation?)
The time is now 7 o’ clock. (The time is now 7 of the clock)
Note that a common mistake is to confuse its with it’s.
It’s indicates to the reader that a letter has been omitted.
It’s a lovely day is an abbreviated way of saying: It is a lovely day.
Note that in most formal writing, the practice of using abbreviated words is inappropriate.
Quotation or Speech Marks (“….”)
Quotation or speech marks are used to:
- To mark out speech
- When quoting someone else’s speech
My grandpa said, “Share your chocolates with your friends.”
“George, don’t do that!”
“Will you get your books out please?” said Mrs Jones, the teacher, “and quieten down!”
It is worth noting that to report an event back does not require speech or quotation marks.
Mrs Jones told the pupils to take out their books and to quieten down.
The hyphen is used to link words together.
- 18th-century people
- second-class post
- gender-neutral phrase
- non-verbal clause
It should be noted that when two words are used non-descriptively, they shouldn’t be hyphenated. For example:
The service I received was second class.
The hyphen is also used when a word is split between two lines. The hyphen should be placed between syllables at the end of the upper line and indicates to the reader that the word will be completed on the next line.
Brackets ( )
Brackets always come in pairs ( ) and are used to make an aside, or a point which is not part of the main flow of a sentence. If you remove the words between the brackets, the sentence should still make sense.
“The strategy (or strategies) chosen to meet the objectives may need to change as the intervention continues.”
Square Brackets […]
A different set of square brackets [ ] can be used:
- To abbreviate lengthy quotations;
- To correct the tense of a quotation to suit the tense of your own sentence; or
- To add your own words to sections of an abbreviated quotation.
To abbreviate lengthy quotations in an essay or report
“We can define class as a large-scale grouping of people who share common economic resources, that strongly influence the types of lifestyle they are able to lead. Ownership of wealth, together with occupation, are the chief basis of class differences. The major classes that exist in Western societies are an upper class […]; a middle class […] and a working class […].”
(Giddens, 1997, p.243)
To adjust a quotation to suit your own sentence
For example, if you were writing about class structure, you might use the following:
According to Giddens, (1997, p.243) the “[o]wnership of wealth, together with occupation, are the chief basis of class differences”.
To add your own words to sections of an abbreviated quotation
“The way to [start] is to quit talking and begin doing.”
Note, that when using square brackets, only the occasional letter, as in the above example, or the occasional word (for example, when changing the tense of the sentence) would be placed in square brackets in this way.
Many people use the slash instead of or, and, etc, but this is not always helpful to the reader. There is, however, a modern convention in gender-neutral writing to use ‘s/he’.
First of all, saying ‘people’ rather than ‘men’ helps massively! Avoid referring to professional people as ‘him’, try saying ‘them’. Also, refer to professional people by their non-gender-specific terms, ie, ‘actor’ rather than ‘actress’. Wiomen can be actors too!
The correct use of capital letters is also important in writing. Obviously, each sentence needs to begin with a capital letter.
Every proper noun (names of people, places, boats, pets, companies, programs, etc) needs to be capitalised. When it comes to companies that use lower case letters for their names, logos, etc (such as giffgaff), the choice is yours. Personally, I would capitalise as, to me, it looks wrong not to.
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